Sexually Transmitted Diseases – STD

Clínica especializada en enfermedades de transmisión sexual en Barcelona
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1. What are STDs (Sexually Transmitted Diseases)?

It is a set of clinical infectious diseases. These infections are acquired through sexual relations (including vaginal, anal and oral sex) with someone who is infected. Also can be acquired, by the use of contaminated needles or through contact with blood and some of them can be transmitted during pregnancy and childbirth, i.e. from mother to child.

Other names: sexually transmitted infections (STI) and venereal diseases (VD).

2. Who produces it? Which agents can produce it?

They are caused by bacteria, parasites (fungi, protozoa) and viruses. Those caused by bacteria and parasites, we can treated with antibiotics or other medications. Those caused by a virus, there is no cure, only keeping the disease under control with other medicines.

3. Can they be prevented?

To prevent the spread of STDs it is essential:

  1. Know of their existence, in Gynaecology Clinic Sants we recommend to visit a doctor, you can call us and make an appointment.
  2. Practice safe sex, i. e. protected sex o safe sex.
  3. It is recommended to use a condom as a contraceptive to protect against infection in a large majority of STDs.
  4. Know its signs and symptoms.
  5. Ideally, before you start having sex a couple should consider getting tested for STDs, regardless of whether or not they both had previous sexual encounters with other people, however there are some STDs that are asymptomatic and , as a result, difficult to diagnostic, for example HPV (human papilloma virus).

4. What types of STDs exist?

There are more than 20 types of STDs, the most common are:

  1. Chlamydia
  2. Gonnorhea
  3. Genital warts
  4. Condilomas genitales
  5. HPV
  6. HIV/AIDS
  7. Hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV)
  8. Syphilis
  9. Trichomoniasis
  10. Bacterial vaginosis
  11. Candidiasis
  12. Pubic lise

1.Chlamydia – Chlamydia Infection

What is Chlamydia?

Chlamydia is a genus of gram-negative bacteria which belongs to the family Chlamydiaceae.

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease (STD).

Any person can be infected with Chlamydia. It is very common among teenagers and young people.

Sexually tested young women should be tested every year.

Most people who have Chlamydia don’t know it.

You can pass Chlamydia to others without knowing it.

Chlamydia is easy to treat and cure.

If you do not treat Chlamydia, it can lead to serious health problems.

¿How can I lower my risk for Chlamydia?

The surest way to prevent chlamydia is not to have sex or to have sex only with someone who’s not infected and who has sex only with you.

Condoms can reduce your risk of getting chlamydia if used the right way every single time you have sex.

Washing the genitals, urinating, or douching after sex will not prevent any Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD).

How does someone get Chlamydia?

You can get Chlamydia by having sex with someone who has it.

“Having sex” means having anal, oral, or vaginal sex.

If you are a pregnant woman who has Chlamydia, you can pass the infection to your baby.

What are the symptoms of Chlamydia?

IF YOU ARE A WOMAN

The majority of chlamydial infections in women do not cause any symptoms. You can get chlamydia in the cervix (opening to the womb), rectum, or throat. You may not notice any symptoms. But if you do have symptoms, you might notice:

An unusual discharge from your vagina.

Burning when you urinate.

Discomfort or bleeding when you have sex.

If the infection spreads, you might get lower abdominal pain, pain during sex, nausea, or fever.

IF YOU ARE A MAN

The majority of chlamydial infections in men do not cause any symptoms. You can get chlamydia in the urethra (inside the penis), rectum, or throat. You may not notice any symptoms. But if you do have symptoms, you might notice:

A discharge from your penis.

Burning when you urinate.

Burning or itching around the opening of your penis.

How can I find out if I have Chlamydia?

In Gynaecology Clinic Sants after your check and case of suspicion of being infected by Chlamydia we will give you a special test for Chlamydia. The test is easy and painless.

When should I be tested?

IF YOU ARE A WOMAN

You should be tested for chlamydia at least once a year if you are:

25 or younger and you’re having sex.

Older than 25 and you’re having sex with more than one partner.

Older than 25 and you have a new sex partner.

Pregnant.

IF YOU ARE A MAN

Contact us if you notice a discharge or feel a burning around your penis.

If I have Chlamydia, what does that mean for my partner?

Your partner may have Chlamydia, too.

Tell your recent sex partners, so they can get tested and treated.

Avoid having sex until seven days after you’ve both started your treatment, so you don’t re-infect each other.

How is Chlamydia treated?

Chlamydia can be treated and cured with antibiotics.

Finish all of the medicine to be sure you are cured.

Do not share your medicine with anyone. You need all of it.

If you still have symptoms after treatment, go back to see the doctor.

You should get tested again about three months after you finish your treatment. This is especially important if you are not sure if your partner was also treated.

How effective is the treatment?

The disease tends to remit with conventional antibiotics for this infection being 99% efficacy.

CAN I GET CHLAMYDIA AGAIN AFTER I’VE BEEN TREATED?

Yes, you can get chlamydia again. You can get it from an untreated partner or a new partner.

WHAT HAPPENS IF I DON’T GET TREATED?

IF YOU ARE A WOMEN

If untreated, chlamydia can spread into the uterus or fallopian tubes and cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a serious infection of the reproductive organs.

PID can cause damage in your fallopian tubes. This damage may leave you unable to get pregnant or lead to an ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the uterus).

PID may also cause chronic pain in your pelvic area.

If you have untreated chlamydia, you could pass the infection to your baby when giving birth. Chlamydia can cause serious health problems for babies.

IF YOU ARE A MAN

Chlamydia rarely causes long-term health problems in men. You may get an infection in the tube that carries sperm from the testes. This infection can cause pain and fever. In rare cases, this infection may prevent you from fathering children.

2. Gonnorhea

What is it?

Gonorrhea is common sexually transmitted disease (STD). It is caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Anyone who is sexually active can get Gonorrhea. It is more common among teens and young adults.

Many people who have Gonorrhea don’t know it. Especially in women, the disease often has no symptoms.

You can pass Gonorrhea to others without knowing it. Gonorrhea is easy to treat and cure.

If you do not treat Gonorrhea, it can lead to serious health problems.

How can I lower my risk for Gonorrhea?

The surest way to prevent Gonorrhea is not to have sex or to have sex only with someone who’s not infected and who has sex only with you.

Condoms can reduce your risk of getting Gonorrhea if used the right way every single time you have sex.

Washing the genitals, urinating, or douching after sex will not prevent any Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD).

How does someone get Gonorrhea?

You can get Gonorrhea by having sex with someone who has it. “Having sex” means having anal, oral, or vaginal contact.

If you are a pregnant woman who has Gonorrhea, you can pass the infection to your baby.

What are the symptoms of gonorrhea?

IF YOU ARE A WOMAN

You can get Gonorrhea in the anus, eyes, mouth, throat, urinary tract, or uterus. You may not notice any symptoms. If you do have symptoms, they will vary depending on what part of your body is infected. If you have Gonorrhea in the uterus or urinary tract, you might notice these symptoms:

Vaginal bleeding between periods.

Pain or burning when you urinate.

Increased vaginal discharge.

If you have Gonorrhea in the rectum, you might notice these symptoms: Itching, soreness, bleeding, a discharge from your rectum, or painful bowel movements.

If you have Gonorrhea in the throat, you might notice that your throat is sore.

IF YOU ARE A MAN

You can get Gonorrhea in the anus, eyes, mouth, penis, or throat. You may not notice any symptoms. If you do have symptoms, they will vary depending on what part of your body is infected.

If you have Gonorrhea in the penis, you might notice these symptoms:

Pain or burning when you urinate.

A discharge from your penis.

Painful or swollen testicles.

If you have Gonorrhea in the rectum, you might notice: Itching, soreness, bleeding, a discharge from your rectum, or painful bowel movements.

If you have Gonorrhea in the throat, you might notice that your throat is sore.

When should I be tested?

IF YOU ARE A WOMAN

You should be tested for Gonorrhea if you have:

Any symptoms, like pain or burning when you pass urine or vaginal discharge.

A partner who has Gonorrhea or symptoms that might be Gonorrhea.

Another STD, such as Chlamydia.

If you’re pregnant, ask the doctor if you should be tested for gonorrhea.

IF YOU ARE A MAN

You should be tested for Gonorrhea if you have:

A discharge from your penis or feel pain.

Pain or burning when you pass urine

Itching, soreness, bleeding, or rectal discharge, if you have receptive anal sex.

A partner that has Gonorrhea or symptoms that might be Gonorrhea.

Another STD, such as Chlamydia.

How can I find out if I have Gonorrhea?

Ask a doctor to give you a test for Gonorrhea.

How is Gonorrhea treated?

Gonorrhea can be treated and cured with antibiotics. It has 100% efficacy.

Finish all of the medicine to be sure you are cured.

Don’t share your medicine with anyone. You need all of it.

If you still have symptoms after treatment, go back to see the doctor.

Can I get Gonorrhea again after I’ve been treated?

Yes, you can get Gonorrhea again. You can get it from an untreated partner or a new partner.

If I have Gonorrhea, what does that mean for my partner?

Your partner may have Gonorrhea, too.

Be sure to tell your recent sex partners, so they can get tested and treated.

Avoid having sex until you’ve both finished your treatment, so you don’t re-infect each other.

What happens if I don’t get treated?

Gonorrhea stays in your body if it is not treated. You may have a higher risk of getting HIV infection if you have unprotected sex with a partner living with HIV. Gonorrhea can also spread to the blood or joints. This condition can be very serious.

IF YOU ARE A WOMAN

Gonorrhea can spread into the uterus or fallopian tubes and cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a serious infection that happens when Gonorrhea spreads to the reproductive organs.

PID can also cause damage that makes you unable to get pregnant.

Untreated Gonorrhea may cause chronic pain in your pelvic area.

If you have untreated gonorrhea, you could pass the infection to your baby when giving birth. Gonorrhea can cause serious health problems for babies.

IF YOU ARE A MAN

  • You may develop a painful condition in the testicles. In rare cases, this may prevent you from fathering children.

3. Henital gerpes

What is it?

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted virus.

Genital herpes is common in both men and women

Most people who have genital herpes don’t know it. There are often no symptoms.

If you have symptoms, the most common ones are painful blisters and sores.

You can pass genital herpes to others without knowing it.

There is no cure for genital herpes, but there are treatments for the symptoms.

Genital herpes does not usually cause serious health problems

How can I lower my risk for genital Herpes?

The surest way to prevent genital herpes is not to have sex or to have sex only with someone who’s not infected and who has sex only with you.

Condoms can reduce your risk of getting genital herpes if used the right way every single time you have sex. But a condom protects only the area of the body that it covers. Areas the condom doesn’t cover can become infected.

Washing the genitals, urinating, or douching after sex will not prevent any Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD).

How can I find out if I have genital herpes?
What are the symptoms of genital herpes?

Genital herpes often doesn’t cause any symptoms. If you do have symptoms, you might notice:

Painful blisters or sores on or around the genitals or anus. These sores typically heal within two to four weeks.

Feeling like you have the flu when the sores are present.

Sores that come back several times within a year. The presence of the sores is called an outbreak.

There are two types of genital herpes virus—HSV1 and HSV2. Both types can cause sores or blisters on or around the genitals.

HSV1 can also cause sores on the mouth or lips, which are called fever blisters

How does someone get genital herpes?

You can get genital herpes by having sex with someone who has it. “Having sex” means having anal, oral, or vaginal sex.

You can also get genital herpes if your genitals touch the infected skin or secretions (like saliva through oral sex) of someone who has it.

You can get genital herpes even if your partner shows no signs of the infection.

What can I expect to happen if I have genital herpes?

MEN AND WOMEN

You can expect to have several outbreaks (usually four or five) a year. Over time you can expect to have fewer outbreaks.

You have a higher chance of getting an HIV infection if you have unprotected sex with a partner living with HIV.

Knowing that you have genital herpes may make you feel worried or sad. Talk with a doctor about your concerns.

PREGNANT WOMEN

In rare cases, you could pass the infection to your baby.

If you have active genital herpes when you go into labor, the doctor may do a cesarean delivery (“C-section”).

Be sure to tell your doctor if you or your partner has genital herpes.

When should I be tested?

You should be tested for genital herpes if:

You have any symptoms (like an unusual sore).

Your partner has genital herpes or symptoms that might be genital herpes.

If I have genital herpes, what does that mean for my partner?

Your partner may have genital herpes, too.

Be sure to tell your recent sex partners, so they can go to their doctors to be evaluated and maybe treated.

Avoid having sex with an uninfected partner when you have visible sores or other symptoms.

Be aware that even if you don’t have symptoms, you can still infect your partner

Can genital herpes be treated?

There is no cure for genital herpes, but there are treatments for its symptoms.

Some medicines can prevent the blisters or make them go away faster.

If you have several outbreaks in a year, a treatment called daily suppressive therapy can reduce your chance of passing the infection to your sex partners.

4. Genital warts

What is it?

Condyloma refers to an infection of the genitals and there are two types: Condyloma acuminatum or genital wart and flat Condyloma.

How can I lower my risk for Condyloma?

The surest way to prevent Condyloma is not to have sex or to have sex only with someone who’s not infected and who has sex only with you.

Condoms can reduce your risk of getting Condyloma if used the right way every single time you have sex. But a condom protects only the area of the body that it covers. Areas the condom doesn’t cover can become infected.

Washing the genitals, urinating, or douching after sex will not prevent any Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD).

How can I find out if I have Genital warts?

By the presence of wart the typical cockscomb, presents long and veriable incubation periods; generally known as condyloma or genital warts, is caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV), it is transmitted through vaginal, anal or oral sex. There are four types of genital warts:

– Condyloma acuminata, which takes the form similar to a “cauliflower”.

– Papular warts of 1-4 mm, smooth, generally of skin color.

– Keratotic warts, (hard, calloused) with a thick coating that resembles common warts.

Flat warts may be papules (small balls, granite) centre plane, all these types of warts can appear on the penis, vagina, vulva, urethra, cervix or anus; places of the body with a moist favourable for growth and reproduction.

What are the symptoms of Genital Condyloma?

The main complaints are stinging, burning and foreign body sensation in the genitals.

How does someone get Genital Condyloma?

You can get Chlamydia by having sex with someone who has it. “Having sex” means having anal, oral, or vaginal sex

You can also get genital warts if your genitals touch the infected skin or secretions

You can get genital warts even if your partner shows no signs of infection.

When should I be tested?

You should be tested for Genital warts if:

Have any symptoms (like a rare wart).

A partner who has Genital warts or symptoms that might be Genital warts.

Is there any treatment for genital warts?

When warts have grown much it is needed surgical treatment by electrofulguration (coagulation). If they are small the treatment is topical.

5. Genital HPV Infection

What is it?

Genital human papillomavirus (also called HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI). There are more than 40 HPV types that can infect the genital areas of males and females. These HPV types can also infect the mouth and throat. Most people who become infected with HPV do not even know they have it.

Gynaecology Clinic Sants informs you that that HPV is not the same as genital herpes or HIV (the virus that causes AIDS). These STDs are caused by different virus strains with symptoms, signs and health problems themselves. HPV is so common that at least 50% of women and sexually active men get it at some point in their lives.

How can I lower my risk for HPV?

The surest way to prevent HPV is not to have sex or to have sex only with someone who’s not infected and who has sex only with you.

Condoms can reduce your risk of getting chlamydia if used the right way every single time you have sex. But a condom protects only the area of the body that it covers. Areas the condom doesn’t cover can become infected.

Washing the genitals, urinating, or douching after sex will not prevent any Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD).

What are the signs, symptoms and potential health problems of HPV?

Most people with HPV do not develop symptoms or health problems from it. In 90% of cases, the body’s immune system clears HPV naturally within two years. But, sometimes, HPV infections are not cleared and can cause:

  • Genital warts
  • Rarely, warts in the throat.
  • When this occurs in children it is called juvenile-onset RRP (JORRP).
  • Cervical cancer and other, less common but serious cancers, including cancers of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus, and oropharynx (back of throat including base of tongue and tonsils).

The types of HPV that can cause genital warts are not the same as the types that can cause cancers. There is no way to know which people who get HPV will go on to develop cancer or other health problems.

Signs and symptoms of HPV-related problems:

Genital warts usually appear as a small bump or group of bumps in the genital area. They can be small or large, raised or flat, or shaped like a cauliflower. Health care providers can diagnose warts by looking at the genital area during an office visit. Warts can appear within weeks or months after sexual contact with an infected partner—even if the infected partner has no signs of genital warts. If left untreated, genital warts might go away, remain unchanged, or increase in size or number. They will not turn into cancer.

Cervical cancer usually does not have symptoms until it is quite advanced. For this reason, it is important for women to get regular screening for cervical cancer. Gynaecology Clinic Sants recommends having aCYTOLOGY (cervical) as soon after first sex. Screening tests can find early signs of disease so that problems can be treated early, before they ever turn into cancer.

Other HPV-related cancers might not have signs or symptoms until they are advanced and hard to treat. These include cancers of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus, and oropharynx.

How do people get HPV?

HPV is passed on through genital contact, most often during vaginal and anal sex. HPV may also be passed on during oral sex and genital-to-genital contact. HPV can be passed on between straight and same-sex partners, even when the infected partner has no signs or symptoms.

A person can have HPV even if years have passed since he or she had sexual contact with an infected person. Most infected persons do not realize they are infected or that they are passing the virus on to a sex partner. It is also possible to get more than one type of HPV.

Rarely, a pregnant woman with genital HPV can pass HPV to her baby during delivery. Very rarely, the child can develop juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP).

How does HPV cause genital warts and cancer?

HPV can cause normal cells on infected skin to turn abnormal. Most of the time, you cannot see or feel these cell changes. In most cases, the body fights off HPV naturally and the infected cells then go back to normal. But in cases when the body does not fight off HPV, HPV can cause visible changes in the form of genital warts or cancer. Warts can appear within weeks or months after getting HPV. Cancer often takes years to develop after getting HPV.

How can people prevent HPV-related diseases?

1. Primary prevention

– A vaccine VPH is available.
– Free universal vaccination in schools to girls aged 11 to 12 years old.

TETRAVALENT VACCINE

  • This vaccine has been indicated to be administered in women from the age of 9.
  • For the prevention of precancerous lesions and cervical, vulvar, vaginal and anal cancer caused by oncogenic HPV types included in the vaccine (HPV 16 and HPV 18) and genital warts caused by HPV types 6 and 11.
  • Doesn’t contain genetic material, therefore can not cause disease.
  • Can be given to children from 9 to 15 years and women from 16 to 26 years
  • Series of 3 doses over a period of 6 months. Injection Intramuscular deltoid muscle of the arm.
  • 3-dose series:
    • 1st dose month 0
    • 2nd dose month 2
    • 3rd dose month 6
What can be done?

2. Secondary prevention:

-Cervical cytology to detect precancerous lesions.
-Determination papillomavirus (because of illness).

Is there a test for HPV?

The HPV tests on the market are only used to help screen women at certain ages and with certain Pap test findings, for cervical cancer. There is no general test for men or women to check one’s overall “HPV status,” nor is there an approved HPV test to find HPV on the genitals or in the mouth or throat.

Is there a treatment for HPV or related diseases?

There is no treatment for the virus itself, but there are treatments for the diseases that HPV can cause:

Visible genital warts can be removed by the patient him or herself with prescribed medications. They can also be treated by a health care provider. Some people choose not to treat warts, but to see if they disappear on their own. No one treatment is better than another.

Cervical cancer is most treatable when it is diagnosed and treated early. But women who get routine Pap tests and follow up as needed can identify problems before cancer develops. Prevention is always better than treatment.

Other HPV-related cancers are also more treatable when diagnosed and treated early.

6. HIV/AIDS

What is it?

HIV is the human immunodeficiency virus. HIV is a virus that kills or damages cells of the body’s immune system.

AIDS is an acronym for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the most advanced stage of HIV infection.

How can I lower my risk for HIV/AIDS?

The surest way to prevent HIV/AIDS is not to have sex or to have sex only with someone who’s not infected and who has sex only with you.

Condoms can reduce your risk of getting VIH/SIDA if used the right way every single time you have sex. But a condom protects only the area of the body that it covers. Areas the condom doesn’t cover can become infected

Washing the genitals, urinating, or douching after sex will not prevent any Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD).

Gynaecology Clinic Sants recommend HIV testing in those with diagnosed STD or who think that they have an STD because people infected with STDs have a probability of at least two to five times higher for HIV, if exposed to virus through sexual contact, that people who are not infected.

How can I find out if I have HIV/AIDS?

Contact with our doctors. A blood test can help determine if you have VHS/AIDS.

How does someone get VHS/AIDS?

HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with an infected person. AIDS may also spread by sharing drug needles or through contact with the blood of an infected person. Women can give it to their babies during pregnancy or childbirth.

What are the first symptoms of VHS/AIDS?

The first signs of HIV infection may be swollen glands and flu symptoms. They can come and go a month or two after infection. Severe symptoms may not appear for months or years.

Can HIV/AIDS be treated?

There is no cure, but there are many medicines to fight HIV and other infections and cancers that come with. People can live with the disease for many years.

7. Hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV)

What is it?

They are viral diseases that affect the liver, can become chronic and sometimes evolve into liver cirrhosis or liver cancer. The carrier usually has no symptoms or nonspecific symptoms, such as fatigue. In analyzes transaminases tend to be high. Over 50% of people living with HBV and HCV are unaware that they are.

How can I lower my risk for Hepatitis B or C?

The surest way to prevent Hepatitis B or C is not to have sex or to have sex only with someone who’s not infected and who has sex only with you.

Condoms can reduce your risk of getting HBV and HCV if used the right way every single time you have sex. But a condom protects only the area of the body that it covers. Areas the condom doesn’t cover can become infected.

Washing the genitals, urinating, or douching after sex will not prevent any Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD).

Use caution when practicing tattooing, pircings, acupuncture centers that do not meet sanitary standards.

Do not share needles or tubes for inhaling or snorting drugs.

Don’t use instruments infected with blood like personal hygiene items such as contaminated razors.

How will I know if I have HBV or HCV?

Consult our doctors. A blood test can help determine if you have HBV or HCV.

Can HBV or HCV be treated?

There is no cure, but there are many medicines to fight HBV or HCV infection and other infections and cancers that come with. The prognosis of HCV is reserved however some cases the person can live many years with the infection.

8. Syphilis

What is Syphilis?

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a spirochete that is a type of bacteria calledTreponema pallidum.

How do people get syphilis?

Syphilis is passed from person to person through direct contact with a syphilis sore. Sores occur mainly on the external genitals, vagina, anus, or in the rectum. Sores also can occur on the lips and in the mouth. Transmission of the organism occurs during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Pregnant women with the disease can pass it to the babies they are carrying. Syphilis cannot be spread through contact with toilet seats, doorknobs, swimming pools, hot tubs, bathtubs, shared clothing, or eating utensils.

What are the signs and symptoms?

Many people infected with syphilis do not have any symptoms for years, yet remain at risk for late complications if they are not treated. Although transmission occurs from persons with sores who are in the primary or secondary stage, many of these sores are unrecognized. Thus, transmission may occur from persons who are unaware of their infection.

There are three different stages depending on the evolution of the disease and disease severity.

How is syphilis diagnosed?

Using a blood test that determines the antibodies produced by the person in contact with the bacteria. You can also diagnose from the liquid of cancer sores (primary lesion) by direct observation of the bacteria by dark field microscopy.

What is the link between syphilis and HIV?

Genital sores (chancres) caused by syphilis make it easier to transmit and acquire HIV infection sexually. There is an estimated 2- to 5-fold increased risk of acquiring HIV if exposed to that infection when syphilis is present

What is the treatment for syphilis?

Syphilis is easy to cure in its early stages. A single intramuscular injection of penicillin, an antibiotic, will cure a person who has had syphilis for less than a year. Additional doses are needed to treat someone who has had syphilis for longer than a year. For people who are allergic to penicillin, other antibiotics are available to treat syphilis. There are no home remedies or over-the-counter drugs that will cure syphilis. Treatment will kill the syphilis bacterium and prevent further damage, but it will not repair damage already done.

Because effective treatment is available, it is important that persons be screened for syphilis on an on-going basis if their sexual behaviours put them at risk for STDs.

Persons who receive syphilis treatment must abstain from sexual contact with new partners until the syphilis sores are completely healed. Persons with syphilis must notify their sex partners so that they also can be tested and receive treatment if necessary.

Will syphilis recur?

Having syphilis once does not protect a person from getting it again. Following successful treatment, people can still be susceptible to re-infection. Only laboratory tests can confirm whether someone has syphilis. Because syphilis sores can be hidden in the vagina, rectum, or mouth, it may not be obvious that a sex partner has syphilis. Talking with a health care provider will help to determine the need to be re-tested for syphilis after being treated.

How can syphilis be prevented?

The surest way to avoid transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, including syphilis, is to abstain from sexual contact or to be in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and is known to be uninfected.

Avoiding alcohol and drug use may also help prevent transmission of syphilis because these activities may lead to risky sexual behaviour. It is important that sex partners talk to each other about their HIV status and history of other STDs so that preventive action can be taken.

Genital ulcer diseases, like syphilis, can occur in both male and female genital areas that are covered or protected by a latex condom, as well as in areas that are not covered. Correct and consistent use of latex condoms can reduce the risk of syphilis, as well as genital herpes and chancroid, only when the infected area or site of potential exposure is protected.

Transmission of an STD, including syphilis cannot be prevented by washing the genitals, urinating, and or douching after sex. Any unusual discharge, sore, or rash, particularly in the groin area, should be a signal to refrain from having sex and to see a doctor immediately.

9. Trichomoniasis

What is Trichomoniasis?

Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis which parasitizes in the urogenital tract of both men and women, the symptoms of this disease are more common in women.

How common is trichomoniasis?

Trichomoniasis is curable STD that most often affects young, sexually active women.

How does someone get trichomoniasis?

Trichomoniasis is caused by the single-celled protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. The vagina is the most common site where infection occurs in women while in men is in the urethra (urine canal).

The parasite is transmitted through sexual relationship with an infected partner either by contact between the penis and the vagina or vulva contact vulva (the genital area outside the vagina). Women can get the disease from a man or woman who has the infection but men usually contract it only from infected women.

What are the signs and symptoms?

Most men with trichomoniasis do not have signs or symptoms, but some may have a temporary irritation inside the penis, mild discharge or slight burning after urination or ejaculation.

Some women have symptoms or signs of infection which include a frothy vaginal discharge, greenish yellow with a strong odour. The infection also may cause discomfort during sex and urination, as well as irritation and itching in the genital area of women. In very rare cases there may be pain in the lower belly. Symptoms in women often appear 5 to 28 days after exposure to infection.

What are the complications of trichomoniasis?

The genital inflammation caused by trichomoniasis can increase a woman’s susceptibility to infection with HIV if she is exposed to this virus. The probability that a woman with HIV pass the virus to her sexual partner (or partners) having trichomoniasis may increase.

How is trichomoniasis diagnosed?

To diagnose trichomoniasis in men and women, the physician must perform a physical examination and laboratory testing. The parasite is harder to detect in men than in women. In women, a pelvic examination can reveal small red ulcerations (sores) on the walls of the vagina or cervix.

How is trichomoniasis can be treated?

Trichomoniasis can usually be cured with prescription drugs. The symptoms of trichomoniasis in infected men may disappear within a few weeks without treatment. However, an infected man who has never had symptoms or your symptoms are gone, can continue infecting or reinfecting female sexual partner until the infection is treated. Therefore, both partners should be treated at the same time to eliminate the parasite. People who are being treated for trichomoniasis should avoid sex until they and their sex partners complete treatment and have no symptoms.

The fact that a person has had trichomoniasis once does not mean you can not get it again. A person may remain susceptible to reinfection even when treatment is complete.

How can trichomoniasis be prevented?

The surest way to prevent trichomoniasis is not to have sex or to have a stable, mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has done testing and known to be uninfected.

Using latex condoms correctly every time you have sex will help reduce the risk of getting or spreading trichomoniasis.

Any symptoms in the genital area, such as discharge or burning during urination or an unusual sore or irritation should be a signal to stop having sex and to consult a doctor immediately. A person who has been diagnosed with trichomoniasis (or any other STD) should receive treatment and warn all people you have had sex recently so that they also see a doctor and be treated. This reduces the risk that the sex partners will develop complications from trichomoniasis and the risk of re-infection in people who have had the parasite. A person with trichomoniasis and all recent sex partners should stop having sex to get treatment against infection and wait until symptoms disappear.

10. What is bacterial vaginosis?

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the name of a condition in women where the normal balance of bacteria in the vagina is disrupted and replaced by an overgrowth of certain bacteria. It is sometimes accompanied by discharge, odor, pain, itching, or burning.

How common is bacterial vaginosis?

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection in women of childbearing age. BV is common in pregnant women.

How do people get bacterial vaginosis?

The cause of BV is not fully understood. BV is associated with an imbalance in the bacteria that are normally found in a woman’s vagina. The vagina normally contains mostly “good” bacteria, and fewer “harmful” bacteria. BV develops when there is an increase in harmful bacteria.

Not much is known about how women get BV. There are many unanswered questions about the role that harmful bacteria play in causing BV. Any woman can get BV.

However, some activities or behaviors can upset the normal balance of bacteria in the vagina and put women at increased risk including:

  • Having a new sex partner or multiple sex partners
  • Douching

It is not clear what role sexual activity plays in the development of BV. Women do not get BV from toilet seats, bedding, swimming pools, or from touching objects around them. Women who have never had sex may also be affected.

What are the signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginosis?

Women with BV may have an abnormal vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor. Some women report a strong fish-like odour, especially after intercourse. Discharge, if present, is usually white or gray; it can be thin. Women with BV may also have burning during urination or itching around the outside of the vagina, or both. However, most women with BV report no signs or symptoms at all.

What are the complications of bacterial vaginosis?

In most cases, BV causes no complications. But there are some serious risks from BV including:

Having BV can increase a woman’s susceptibility to HIV infection if she is exposed to the HIV virus.

Having BV increases the chances that an HIV-infected woman can pass HIV to her sex partner

BV can increase a woman’s susceptibility to other STDs, such as herpes simplex virus (HSV), chlamydia, and gonorrhea.

How is bacterial vaginosis diagnosed?

A health care provider must examine the vagina for signs of BV and perform laboratory tests on a sample of vaginal fluid to look for bacteria associated with BV.

What is the treatment for bacterial vaginosis?

Although BV will sometimes clear up without treatment, all women with symptoms of BV should be treated to avoid complications. Male partners generally do not need to be treated. However, BV may spread between female sex partners.

All women who have symptoms of BV should be checked and treated.

BV is treated with antibiotics prescribed by a doctor. Two different antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis are recommended. Either antibiotics can be used in pregnant and non-pregnant women, but according to the recommended dosages differ, consult the physician.

How can bacterial vaginosis be prevented?

BV is not completely understood by scientists, and the best ways to prevent it are unknown. However, it is known that BV is associated with having a new sex partner or having multiple sex partners.

The following basic prevention steps can help reduce the risk of upsetting the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina and developing BV:

The following basic prevention steps can help reduce the risk of upsetting the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina and developing BV:

Be abstinent.

Limit the number of sex partners.

Do not douche.

Use all of the medicine prescribed for treatment of BV, even if the signs and symptoms go away.

11. What is candidiasis?

Is a fungal infection caused by yeasts (mycosis) of any species of Candida.

How can I lower my risk for candidiasis?

The surest way to prevent candidiasis is not to have sex or to have sex only with someone who’s not infected and who has sex only with you

Condoms can reduce your risk of getting chlamydia if used the right way every single time you have sex. But a condom protects only the area of the body that it covers. Areas the condom doesn’t cover can become infected.

Washing the genitals, urinating, or douching after sex will not prevent any Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD).

What are the signs and symptoms of candidiasis?

Candidiasis is a very common cause of vaginal irritation, or vaginitis, and can also occur on the male genitals. In immunocompromised patients (decreased defenses), yeast infections can affect the esophagus with the potential to become systemic.

How is candidiasis diagnosed?

The diagnosis of a yeast infection is performed through microscopic examination or crops.

Can it be treated?

Yes, conventional antifungal drugs orally or topically.

12. What are pubic lise?

It is a parasite – round, flat and yellowish. It is also called pubic lice that have a propensity for hair follicles (hair roots).

How can I lower my risk for pubic lice?

The transmission is done in most cases by sexual contact, although in rare cases it can happen to wear clothing that have been in contact with a carrier. In addition to the pubic zone, they can also be placed in the hair, eyebrows, eyelashes and underarm hair and body (legs and arms, for example).

The surest way to prevent pubic lice is not to have sex or to have sex only with someone who’s not infected and who has sex only with you.

Washing the genitals, urinating, or douching after sex will not prevent any Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD).

What are its signs and symptoms?

Pubic lice feed on blood at least twice a day, causing a very annoying itch that can scratch the infected causing irritation and skin infection.

Can it be treated?

There are creams, shampoos and lotions containing gamma benzene hexachloride or permethrin and are equally effective while properly used, among other measures.

5. How do I know if I have STDs?

We recommend you take an appointment at Gynaecology Clinic Sants which has qualified medical personnel that at the first visit will answer any questions. Then the doctor will make checks and specific test for each patient as the different types of STD (Sexually Transmitted Disease) as appropriate.

Medical Clinic Sants have special ECONOMIC PRICES based on a battery of tests covering the vast majority of STD.

6. How long does it last?

In Gynaecology Clinic Sants you will be given a personalized treatment, the first visit is an average time of 25 minutes per patient. On this first visit, the doctor will perform a comprehensive review, answer all your questions and will direct the treatment to follow.

7. Prices

The first medical visit will cost 50 Euros. Gynaecology Clinic Sants offers test kits and test for each type of STD with affordable prices, with a personalized and private approach.

Furthermore Gynaecology Clinic Sants has SPECIAL PRICES based on a battery of tests that covers the vast majority of common STDs, quickly, safely and personalized.